Spectacolul ideilor pe hartă

30/mart/2010 Atentatele de la Moscova: un test pentru premierul Putin

Moscow Attack a Test for Putin and His Record Against Terror


New York Times, 30 martie a.c.

MOSCOW — The brazen suicide bombings in the center of Moscow confronted Prime Minister Vladimir V. Putin with a grave challenge to his record of curbing terrorism, and raised the possibility that he would respond as he had in the past, by significantly tightening control over the government.

The explosions Monday, set off by female suicide bombers in two landmark subway stations, killed at least 38 people and wounded scores of others, touching off fears that the Muslim insurgency in southern Russia, including Chechnya, was once again being brought to the country’s heart.

The attacks during the morning rush hour seemed all but designed to taunt the security services, which have been championed by Mr. Putin in the decade since he took power in Russia. The first one occurred at the Lubyanka subway station, next to the headquarters of the Federal Security Service, also known as the F.S.B., the successor agency to the Soviet-era K.G.B. that was led by Mr. Putin in the late 1990s.

Mr. Putin, the former president and still Russia’s paramount leader, has built his reputation in part on his success in bottling up the Muslim insurgency in southern Russia and preventing major terrorist attacks in the country’s population centers in recent years. If the bombings on Monday herald a renewed campaign by insurgents in major cities, then that legacy may be tarnished.

The attacks could also throw into doubt the policies of Mr. Putin’s protégé, President Dmitri A. Medvedev, who has spoken in favor of liberalizing the government, increasing political pluralism and dealing with terrorism by addressing the root causes of the insurgency. (foto: nytimes.com)

While Mr. Medvedev has not yet put in place many major changes, Mr. Putin has generally allowed him to pursue his course. More terrorism, though, could cause Mr. Putin to shove Mr. Medvedev aside and move the security-oriented circle of advisers around Mr. Putin to the forefront.

“Putin said, ‘One thing that I definitely accomplished was this,’ and he didn’t,” said Pavel K. Baev, a Russian who is a professor at the International Peace Research Institute in Oslo.

“My feeling is this is not an isolated attack, that we will see more,” Mr. Baev said. “If we are facing a situation where there is a chain of attacks, that would undercut every attempt to soften, liberalize, open up, and increase the demand for tougher measures.”

Mr. Putin on Monday limited his comments largely to vows to destroy the terrorists who organized the attacks, who have not been identified, but who the Russian authorities said they suspect came from Chechnya or neighboring regions in the Caucasus Mountains. But when he last faced a spate of such violence, in 2004, he reacted with a sweeping reorganization of the government that he said would unite the country against terrorism, but also concentrated power in the Kremlin.

He pushed through laws that eliminated the direct election of regional governors, turning them into presidential appointees, and made it all but impossible for political independents to be elected to the federal Parliament. He also increased the strength of the security services.

Boris I. Makarenko, chairman of the Center for Political Technologies in Moscow, a research organization, cautioned that it was too soon to speculate whether Mr. Putin might feel the need to clamp down. Mr. Makarenko said he believed that Mr. Putin’s reputation had not suffered badly because of terrorist attacks early in his tenure as president.

But Mr. Makarenko noted that the bombings in the Moscow subway came as Russia’s financial problems had been agitating the government. Protests have broken out in some major cities, and the opposition, while still relatively weak, has been gaining some support.

“The public has become more skeptical about the government in general in recent months, due to the government’s limited ability to tackle the effects of the economic crisis, to the inefficiency and misbehavior of the police, and other issues,” he said. “These terrorist attacks might be another piece in the efforts of those who want to go after the government.”

The subway system in Moscow is one of the world’s most extensive and well managed, and the bombings on Monday spread anxiety that is unlikely to dissipate for some time. For many people here, the day’s events recalled the tense times in the early part of the last decade when the city, including the subway, was hit with several terrorist attacks. (foto: nytimes.com)

While the Muslim insurgency has not subsided in recent years, major attacks outside the Caucasus region had been unusual, and in April 2009, the Kremlin even announced what it described as the end of special counterterrorism operations in Chechnya.

But in November 2009, terrorists bombed a luxury passenger train that was traveling in a rural area from Moscow to St. Petersburg, killing 26 people. Last month, a Chechen rebel leader, Doku Umarov, threatened in an interview on a Web site to organize terror acts in Russian population centers.

“If Russians think that the war is happening only on television, somewhere far off in the Caucasus, and it will not touch them, then we are going to show them that this war will return to their homes,” he said.

Mr. Medvedev, who took office in 2008, has called for a somewhat different tack on the insurgency, saying that the government should aggressively hunt down the terrorists, but also focus on the poverty and government malfeasance that he contended nurtured extremism.

Last June, Mr. Medvedev visited the region and gave an unusual speech in which he seemed to offer an implicit rebuff to the uncompromising Putin strategy.

“It is no secret to anyone here that these problems in the North Caucasus, and in the south of our country in general, are systemic,” Mr. Medvedev said. “By saying that, I am referring to the low living standards, high unemployment and massive, horrifyingly widespread corruption.”

Mr. Medvedev also appointed a new leader of Ingushetia, a Muslim region, who echoed his belief that hard-line measures would only stir a backlash.

On Monday, though, some senior members of Mr. Putin’s party, United Russia, were already suggesting that the government needed to adopt a stern new plan to combat terrorism.

Vladimir A. Vasilyev, chairman of the security committee in Parliament, lashed out at law-enforcement authorities, saying that they should be punished for allowing the attack.

“I am convinced that all those who failed to carry out their duty will bear responsibility,” he said, adding that current laws were “ineffective.”

For his part, Mr. Medvedev voiced only a determination to catch those behind the attacks. “We will continue our counterterrorist operations with unflinching resolve until we have defeated this scourge,” he said.

Reporting was contributed by Ellen Barry, Andrew E. Kramer, Michael Schwirtz and Yulia Taranova.

30 martie 2010 Posted by | Geopolitica, Intelo | , , | Lasă un comentariu

30/mart/2010 Moscova crede în lacrimi: cel mai dur atentat terorist din ultimii 6 ani

Moscova crede in lacrimi: 38 de victime in cel mai dur atentat terorist din ultimii 6 ani

Cristina Roşca

Separatistii ceceni sunt principalii suspecti pentru atentatele de la metroul moscovit. „Teroristii aflati la originea atentatelor vor fi nimiciti”, a tunat premierul rus Vladimir Putin.

Atentatele cu bomba de la metroul din Moscova s-au repercutat si asupra economiei. Rubla, moneda nationala, a cunoscut cel mai amplu declin in raport cu euro din ultimele doua saptamani, a pierdut teren si in fata dolarului american, dupa ce doua atacuri cu bomba au ucis peste 38 de persoane, scrie Bloomberg.
Moneda s-a depreciat 1,1% in raport cu euro, cel mai important declin zilnic de dupa 25 ianuarie. Ulterior, a castigat teren, cursul de schimb stabilizandu-se la 39,8499 ruble per euro la Moscova. In raport cu dolarul rubla a pierdut 0,6%, pana la un curs de 29,73 ruble per dolar, un minim al ultimelor trei saptamani, pentru ca apoi sa inceapa sa recupereze teren.
Deprecierea rublei a fost „prima reactie la exploziile de la metrou”, a spus Alexey Borichev, seful diviziei de tranzactii valutare de la ING Groep din Moscova.
Cele doua atentate cu bomba ce au avut loc in doua statii de metrou din capitala Rusiei, omorand cel putin 38 de persoane si ranind alte 60, sunt catalogate a fi cele mai sangeroase atacuri din Moscova de dupa 2004.
Si bursa din capitala Rusiei a reactionat, indicele bursier Micex depreciindu-se cu 0,3% la inceputul sedintei de tranzactionare. Ulterior insa acesta a recuperat pierderile, ba mai mult, a avansat cu 0,3%, pana la un nivel de 1.418,44 puncte.

 Moscova a fost zguduita de dimineata
Luni dimineata, in jurul orei 7:50, Moscova a fost zguduita de o explozie in statia de metrou Lubyanka, la mai putin de un kilometru de Piata Rosie. In timpul acestei explozii, care a distrus al doilea vagon al unui metrou, au fost ucise 23 de persoane. Circa 40 de minute mai tarziu, alte 14 persoane au fost ucise intr-un alt atentat, in statia de metrou Park Kulturi.
Exploziile care s-au produs luni dimineata au fost provocate de explozibil avand echivalentul a doua kilograme de TNT fiecare, a declarat procurorul Iuri Siomin.
„Doua femei kamikaze se fac vinovate de aceste atentate”, potrivit lui Iuri Lujkov, primarul Moscovei.
Autoritatile ruse au deschis o ancheta pentru „terorism” dupa exploziile produse.
„O ancheta a fost deschisa dupa cele doua explozii din statiile de metrou Lubianka si Park Kulturi pentru (…) act terorist”, conform unui comunicat de presa.
Presedintele rus Dmitri Medvedev a spus ca a cerut oficialilor rusi sa lupte impotriva terorismului „fara ezitare, pana la capat”.
Medvedev a mai spus ca Rusia nu va face compromisuri in lupta pentru eradicarea terorismului si a cerut astfel sa fie intarita securitatea in toata tara. El a completat ca drepturile omului trebuie respectate in timpul anchetelor realizate de politie, potrivit unui purtator de cuvant de la Kremlin. (foto: nytimes.com)


Cecenii revendica atentatele
Un site asociat separatistilor ceceni a revendicat cele doua atacuri teroriste de la Moscova. Imediat dupa explozii, oficialii rusi au avansat ipoteza ca separatistii s-ar putea afla in spatele acestei situatii. Cecenii au luptat mult timp pentru independenta fata de Rusia.
Cecenia este o republica din sud-vestul Rusiei, situata intr-o regiune din Muntii Caucaz. Populatia Ceceniei este cuprinsa intre 600.000 si 800.000 de persoane, in majoritate musulmani sunniti si rusi crestini ortodocsi. Mii de persoane au fost ucise si 500.000 de ceceni au fost relocati din cauza conflictului cu Moscova.
Acest conflict a stat la baza mai multor atentate din partea cecenilor in ultimii zece ani, insa acestea au fost mai rare in ultimii ani.
Potrivit postului de radio Ecoul Moscovei, acesta este primul incident de acest tip din ultimii sase ani. In august 2004, o femeie din Cecenia a ucis noua persoane si pe ea insasi si a ranit alti 51 de oameni atunci cand a detonat o bomba in apropierea unei statii de metrou din nord-vestul Moscovei. Alte atacuri au mai avut loc in 2003 si 2004.
Metroul de la Moscova este printre cele mai scumpe din lume si reprezinta o „artera vitala” pentru navetistii din capitala Rusiei, transportand zilnic in jur de sapte milioane de persoane. Prin comparatie, metroul din Bucuresti transporta zilnic aproximativ 600.000 de calatori.

Fanatismul religios si atentatele teroriste

  • Atacurile teroriste s-au inmultit in ultimii ani, statiile de metrou fiind cele mai cautate tinte. Dupa Londra, Madrid si New York, a venit randul Moscovei.
  • „Musulmanii din Cecenia si cei care se fac vinovati de atentatele de la Madrid, Londra si New York s-au ajutat reciproc. Intre aceste ramuri radicale au existat conexiuni”, a declarat Adrian Cioroianu, fost ministru de externe.
  • „In anii ’90, radicali care aveau legaturi cu Al-Qaeda au luptat si in Balcani. Daca exista legaturi in acest caz, anchetele de la Moscova le va scoate la iveala.”
  • Femeile kamikaze nu sunt un fenomen singular. Reteta e aceeasi in lumea radicala musulmana, spune Cioroianu, care aminteste de existenta unor astfel de femei in Irak, Israel si in Rusia, in cazul unor atacuri teroriste anterioare, provocate de femei din Cecenia.
  • „Este un fanatism religios dus la extrem”, spune el. „Ce le determina sa reactioneze astfel e promisiunea ca in viata de apoi Mahomed va avea grija de ele si vor fi primite in bratele lui Alah.”
  • Cecenia este o republica din sud-vestul Rusiei, situata intr-o regiune din Muntii Caucaz. Populatia Ceceniei este cuprinsa intre 600.000 si 800.000 de persoane, in majoritate musulmani sunniti si rusi crestini ortodocsi.

Atentate la Moscova
11 iunie 1996 – O bomba explodeaza la metroul din Moscova, omorand patru persoane si ranind alte 12.
11-12 iunie 1996 – O bomba explodeaza in dreptul unui troleibuz din centrul Moscovei la orele de varf ale diminetii, ranind cinci persoane. A doua zi, un atentat similar raneste inca 30 de oameni. Atacurile sunt atribuite rebelilor ceceni.
31 august 1999 – O explozie in cadrul Galeriilor Manezh raneste 29 de persoane. Oficialii de la Moscova catalogheaza atentatele ca fiind acte de terorism, fara a-i acuza insa pe separatistii ceceni.
9 septembrie 1999 – O bomba extrem de puternica distruge un bloc din sud-estul Moscovei, ucigand 94 de oameni si ranind peste 200.
13 septembrie 1999 – Un alt bloc din capitala rusa este distrus de o bomba, numarul victimelor ridicandu-se la 118. Atentatul este atribuit cecenilor.
8 august 2000 – O noua explozie intr-un pasaj subteran din centrul Moscovei provoaca moartea a 13 persoane.
5 februarie 2001 – O bomba de mici dimensiuni explodeaza intr-una dintre cele mai aglomerate statii de metrou din Moscova, ranind 9 persoane.
19 octombrie 2002 – O explozie in sud-vestul Moscovei provoaca o victima si sapte raniti.
5 iulie 2003 – Doua femei kamikaze detoneaza o bomba in cadrul unui festival de muzica din Moscova. Bilant: 15 morti si 60 de raniti.
9 decembrie 2003 – Sase persoane mor in urma unei explozii din centrul capitalei ruse. Femeile sinucigase cecene sunt invinovatite pentru atentat.
6 februarie 2004 – Un nou atentat cu bomba la metroul moscovit se soldeaza cu moartea a 39 de oameni si ranirea a inca 100.
31 august 2004 – Un atac cu bomba declansat in centrul Moscovei ucide 10 persoane si raneste alte 51.
21 august 2006 – In urma unei explozii dintr-o piata de la periferia capitalei Rusiei 10 oameni mor.
29 martie 2010 – Cel putin 38 de persoane mor si alte 33 sunt ranite dupa ce doua bombe explodeaza la metroul din Moscova.

– text publicat în Ziarul financiar, 29.03.2010

30 martie 2010 Posted by | Geopolitica, Intelo, Istorie | , , , , | Lasă un comentariu