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28/mai/2010 Politica externă a Rusiei în epoca postsovietică (1/4)

Russian foreign policy within post- soviet era

 Irina Gucianu

Autoarea acestui studiu este o meritorie absolventă recentă a Facultăţii de Istorie (UB), secţia Relaţii Internaţionale; domeniul său de interes, în ultima perioadă, a fost realitatea (geo)politică din spaţiul ex-sovietic (Rusia, Ucraina mai ales) – EURAST


Over the last decade, Russia, the main successor of the Soviet Union, seems to have steered its foreign politics to a different direction. Is there such a change or this has been the rule all this time? The country nowadays does not seem to have lost its imperialistic velleities in spite of the decline that went into during the first ten years of post-soviet era. The present paper’s purpose is to analyze the extent to which Russia wanted, following the collapse of the soviet empire, to try to get closer to the western camp and the extent to which it tried to maintain its pursuit of great power. It is not somewhat possible that the imperialistic desiderata, that had been less visible in Yeltsin era, will just be more accentuated during Putin era and afterwards, during Putin-Medvedev era? It is not somewhat possible that there is a certain coherence at the administration level concerning the methods of influencing the socio-political evolutions within certain ‘interest’ areas for Russia, such as the maintenance of certain ‘frozen conflicts’ or the usage of gas as a blackmail factor?

First decade of post-soviet Russia

The first decade of Russian post-soviet history corresponds to Yeltsin administration (1991 – 1999) and it is marked by the Russian trial to define itself in relation with the new international realities, seeking to settle new coordinates both in respect of its domestic development as well as its international development. A few aspects may be representative of post – soviet Russia, the way in which this country was prefigured after the Cold War.

Firstly, following the collapse of URSS, there was the hope, as the president Yeltsin himself stated, that Russia would become a ‘normal’ state, with capitalist and democratic attributes. At the end of year 1991, inside the Russian society there was a desire for change. This may explain the popularity of Boris Yeltsin who would win the elections with a decisive percentage of 57%. In addition, this is the period when America is positively perceived in Russia by a majority[1]. Nevertheless, there were opinions that perceived the collapse of the Soviet Union as a Russian defeat, and this idea was equally shared by the former politicians, bureaucrats (aparatkti), former KGB (Committee of State Security) agents or by nostalgic people of the old empire. 

Secondly, the fluctuations of petrol prices during the post era of Cold War, along with the economic restructuring would lead to a growing inflation after 1992. In addition to these, there was also a strike of a severe economic crisis in 1993, which would lead to the depreciation with a third of the Russian ruble in a relatively short period and therefore, the Yeltsin-recommended democratic system would lose substance. In 1997, along with the burst of a large economic crisis in Asia, Russia would be severely stricken economically and financially. The Chechen wars (1994-1996, 1999-2000) added on these somber economic prerequisites, would show a Russia with serious domestic problems to be faced on its own.  As a matter of fact, the area of the Russian Caucasians would look like an ’Achilles heel’ for the post-soviet era.  All these events would have a negative impact on the society that was already situated at the beginning of a moral crisis trying to define its new identity. Gradually, within the circumstances of such tendencies, among Kremlin leaders there would be a reorientation from the western area towards the core of the society, in trying to regain at least part of the power and glory of the former soviet empire, even if this did not involve the ideological perspective. (to be continued)


[1] http://www.economist.com/world/europe/displaystory.cfm?story_id=E1_TPJQTJJD

28 mai 2010 - Posted by | Geopolitica, Intelo | , , , ,

3 comentarii »

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    Pingback de 09/iun/2010 Politica externă a Rusiei în epoca postsovietică (4/4) « G E O P O L I T I K O N | 19 iunie 2010 | Răspunde

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